Introduction to Futures and Options Trading in the Share Market

The stock market is a volatile place, subject to frequent fluctuations in prices and values. Futures and Options (F&O) trading plays a crucial role in the functioning of the stock market. The F&O market allows investors to hedge risk and speculate on the future prices of various commodities, stocks, indices and currencies. This article provides an overview of F&O trading in the share market, highlighting its features, benefits, and risks that every investor should be aware of before stepping into this dynamic market.

Overview of Futures Trading

Futures trading is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell a specific commodity, stock, or currency at a fixed price at a future date. A futures contract is a standardised agreement between the buyer and seller to exchange assets at a predetermined time and price. In the stock market, futures contracts are traded in derivatives segments and are used mainly to hedge against price fluctuations. Futures trading can be done both on a stock exchange and over-the-counter (OTC) markets such as NASDAQ and NYMEX.

Futures trading has several benefits, including providing liquidity, high leverage, and flexibility in terms of trading positions. However, traders need to be aware of the risks involved, such as market volatility and margin calls, which can lead to significant losses. Margin trading allows traders to trade in futures contracts even with a small amount of capital, but this also amplifies the risks involved.

Overview of Options Trading

Options trading can be seen as a derivative of futures trading. It provides investors with the right but not the obligation to buy or sell a specific asset at a specified price within a predefined time frame. Options trading is similar to futures trading but offers more flexibility, as it is not mandatory to execute the contract.

The options contract can be of two types – Call option and Put option. Call option gives the holder the right to buy a particular stock at a fixed price, while Put option gives the holder the right to sell the stock at a fixed price. The strike price, or the price at which the underlying stock can be bought or sold, is also fixed in the option contract.

The benefits of options trading include low investment with high returns potential, limited risks, and flexibility in trading positions. However, traders must also be cautious of the risks involved, such as time decay, volatility risks and the loss of the premium paid for the option. Options trading is considered to be a complex instrument and requires a deeper understanding of the market.


In conclusion, F&O trading in the share market provides traders with a variety of options to hedge their portfolio and speculate on the future prices of various commodities and stocks. However, it is important to keep in mind the risks of margin calls, market volatility, and time decay. Before investing in F&O trading, investors should evaluate their risk appetite and seek advice from a financial advisor. In summary, F&O trading can be an excellent way to diversify an investment portfolio, but it requires a thorough understanding of the market dynamics and vigilance in trading.